Morane-Saulnier MS 450
Type Single seat fighter
Engine 1 Hispano-Suiza 12Y-51
Dimensions Length 8,82 m , height 2,75 m ,  span 10,62 m , wing area 17,10 m2  ,
Weights Empty 1900 kg, loaded 2500 kg , max. take off weight  
Performance Max.. speed 560 km/h , cruising speed  , range 750 km, endurance  , service ceiling   , climb
Armament 1 20 mm HS 404 cannon, 4 7,5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns
Type Werk.Nr Registration History
       
       
The new specification for a single-seat C1 fighter, put forward by the French Ministry of Aviation in 1937, had more stringent, but quite feasible, requirements. The aviation companies were tasked with designing a plane with mandatory cannon armament and a speed of at least 500 km / h. The competition was attended by the firm Morane-Saulnier, who introduced the fighter MS.450. In the development of this aircraft, the design of the serial fighter MS.406C1 was used, but in a considerably modified form. First of all, a lot of work was done to improve the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft, which significantly influenced its appearance. The nose part of MS.450 was generally re-designed. Characteristic for his predecessor bends completely disappeared, as it was decided to get rid of the problematic retractable radiator and instead use tunnel. The Hispano-Suiza 12Y-51 engine was also installed, developing the capacity of 1100 hp. The wing, the horizontal tail and the chassis moved almost unchanged from MS.406. The composition of the instrument equipment has also not changed. As for weapons, it was similar to the modification of the MS.410C1 and consisted of a 20-mm HS 404 engine gun and four 7.5-mm MAS 1934 machine guns in the wing.
An prototype of MS.450-01 first took to the air on April 14, 1939. During the tests, the prototype showed quite decent characteristics. In particular, a maximum speed of 560 km / h was achieved with a maneuverability comparable with MS.406. It would seem that the improved "moran" has every chance of success, but the Air Force chose Dewoitine D.520. The reason for the refusal was quite prosaic - MS.450, although faster, had very modest reserves for modernization, while on the basis of D.520 in 1939-1941, have developed at least ten modifications, the latter of which looked much better than the "moran".  However, the firm Morane-Saulnier completed two more prototypes, deciding to the export market. And they was really lucky. In early 1940, the Swiss Air Force expressed interest in the licensed construction of MS.450, but with some modifications. On the fighter, the four winged machine guns were replaced by 20-mm guns, after which the aircraft entered production under the designation D.3802. During 1941, 12 such fighters were assembled in Switzerland.
Two MS 450, prototypes of a simplified and more powerful version of the MS 406, have been refurbished and received by Launay and Storm on July 28 and August 13 or 18, 1941, then delivered to the Luftwaffe on January 26, 1942.